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by Alfred Edersheim

Philologos Religious Online Books


The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah

Alfred Edersheim


This is an updated and corrected edition which includes all Hebrew and Greek references. Most browsers come with the capability to view Greek fonts but for you to be able to read Hebrew, you will need to upload and install an appropriate font. We recommend "sptiberian" which can be downloaded on the net free of charge.

Within the text in brackets are many references to different sources. An explanation of the abbreviations used regarding material in the Talmud can be found in the file entitled "List of Abbreviations Used in Reference to Rabbinic Writings."  References mainly starting with the abbreviation "Jos." (Ant.=Antiquities, Ag. Apion=Against Apion, etc.) refer to the "Works of Flavius Josephus" and his complete works are online at   The books of the Apocrypha (1&2 Maccabees, etc.) can be found at The Bible, KJV.

Table of Contents

List of Abbreviations
Used in Reference to Rabbinic Writings


Book I, Chapter 1
The Jewish World in the Days of Christ
The Jewish Dispersion in the East

Book I, Chapter 2
The Jewish Dispersion in the West
The Hellenists
Origin of Hellenist Literature in the Greek Translation of the Bible
Character of the Septuagint

Book I, Chapter 3
The Old Faith Preparing for the New
Development of Hellenist Theology: The Apocrypha, Aristeas, Aristobulus, and the Pseud-Epigraphic Writings

Book I, Chapter 4
Philo of Alexandria, The Rabbis, and the Gospels
The Final Development of Hellenism in its Relation to Rabbinism
and the Gospel According to St. John

Book I, Chapter 5
Alexandria and Rome
The Jewish Communities in the Capitals of Western Civilisation

Book I, Chapter 6
Political and Religious Life of the Jewish Dispersion in the West
Their Union in the Great Hope of the Coming Deliverer

Book I, Chapter 7
In Palestine
Jews and Gentiles in 'The Land'
Their Mutual Relations and Feelings
'The Wall of Separation'

Book I, Chapter 8
Traditionalism, Its Origin, Character, and Literature
The Mishnah and Talmud
The Gospel of Christ
The Dawn of a New Day  

Book II

Book II, Chapter 1
In Jerusalem When Herod Reigned

Book II, Chapter 2
The Personal History of Herod
The Two Worlds in Jerusalem

Book II, Chapter 3
The Annunciation of St. John the Baptist
(St. Luke 1:5-25)

Book II, Chapter 4
The Annunciation of Jesus the Messiah, and The Birth of His Forerunner
(St. Matthew 1; St. Luke 1:26-80)

Book II, Chapter 5
What Messiah Did the Jews Expect?

Book II, Chapter 6
The Nativity of Jesus the Messiah
(St. Matthew 1:25; St. Luke 2:1-20)

Book II, Chapter 7
The Purification of the Virgin and The Presentation in the Temple
(St. Luke 2:21-38)

Book II, Chapter 8
The Visit and Homage of the Magi, and The Flight into Egypt
(St. Matthew 2:1-18)

Book II, Chapter 9
The Child-Life in Nazareth
(St. Matthew 2:19-23; St. Luke 2:39,40)

Book II, Chapter 10
In the House of His Heavenly, and In the Home of His Earthly Father
The Temple of Jerusalem
The Retirement at Nazareth
(St. Luke 2:41-52)

Book II, Chapter 11
In the Fifteenth Year of Tiberius Caesar and Under the Pontificate of Annas and Caiaphas
A Voice in the Wilderness
(St. Matthew 3:1-12; St. Mark 1:2-8; St. Luke 3:1-18)

Book II, Chapter 12
The Baptism of Jesus: Its Higher Meaning
(St. Matthew 3:13-17; St. Mark 1:7-11; St. Luke 3:21-23; St. John 1:32-34)  

Book III

Book III, Chapter 1
The Temptation of Jesus
(St. Matthew 4:1-11; St. Mark 1:12,13; St. Luke 4:1-13)

Book III, Chapter 2
The Deputation from Jerusalem
The Three Sects of the Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes
Examination of Their Distinctive Doctrines*
(St. John 1:19-24)

* This chapter contains, among other matter, a detailed and critical examination of the great Jewish Sects, such as was necessary in a work on 'The Times,' as well as 'The Life,' of Christ.

Book III, Chapter 3
The Twofold Testimony of John
The First Sabbath of Jesus' Ministry
The First Sunday
The First Disciples
(St. John 1:15-51)

Book III, Chapter 4
The Marriage Feast in Cana of Galilee, The Miracle that is 'A Sign'
(St. John 2:1-12)

Book III, Chapter 5
The Cleansing of the Temple
'The Sign' Which Is Not a Sign
(St. John 2:13-25)

Book III, Chapter 6
The Teacher Come from God and the Teacher from Jerusalem
Jesus and Nicodemus
(St. John 3:1-21)

Book III, Chapter 7
In Judea and Through Samaria
A Sketch of Samaritan History and Theology
Jews and Samaritans
(St. John 4:1-4)

Book III, Chapter 8
Jesus at the Well of Sychar
(St. John 4:1-42)

Book III, Chapter 9
The Second Visit to Cana
Cure of the 'Nobleman's' Son at Capernaum
(St. Matthew 4:12; St. Mark 1:14; St. Luke 4:14,15; St. John 4:43-54)

Book III, Chapter 10
The Synagogue at Nazareth
Synagogue, Worship and Arrangements
(St. Luke 4:16)

Book III, Chapter 11
The First Galilean Ministry
(St. Matthew 4:13-17; St. Mark 1:14,15; St. Luke 4:15-32)

Book III, Chapter 12
At the 'Unknown' Feast in Jerusalem, and by the Pool of Bethesda
(St. John 5)

Book III, Chapter 13
By the Sea of Galilee
The Final Call of the First Disciples, and the Miraculous Draught of Fishes
(St. Matthew 4:18-22; St. Mark 1:16-20; St. Luke 5:1-11)

Book III, Chapter 14
A Sabbath in Capernaum
(St. Matthew 8:14-17; St. Mark 1:21-34; St. Luke 4:33-41)

Book III, Chapter 15
Second Journey Through Galilee
The Healing of the Leper
(St. Matthew 4:23, 8:2-4; St. Mark 1:35-45; St. Luke 4:42-44, 5:12-16)

Book III, Chapter 16
The Return to Capernaum
Concerning the Forgiveness of Sins
The Healing of the Paralysed
(St. Matthew 9:1-8; St. Mark 2:1-12; St. Luke 5:17-26)

Book III, Chapter 17
The Call of Matthew
The Saviour's Welcome to Sinners
Rabbinic Theology as Regards the Doctrine of Forgiveness in Contrast to the Gospel of Christ
The Call of the Twelve Apostles
(St. Matthew 9:9-13; St. Mark 2:13-17; St. Luke 5:27-32; St. Matthew 10:2-4; St. Mark 3:13-19; St. Luke 6:12-19)

Book III, Chapter 18
The Sermon on the Mount
The Kingdom of Christ and Rabbinic Teaching
(St. Matthew 5-7)

Book III, Chapter 19
The Return to Capernaum
The Healing of the Centurion's Servant
(St. Matthew 8:1,5-15; St. Mark 3:20,21; St. Luke 7:1-10)

Book III, Chapter 20
The Raising of the Young Man of Nain
The Meeting of Life and Death
(St. Luke 7:11-17)

Book III, Chapter 21
The Woman Which Was a Sinner
(St. Luke 7:36-50)

Book III, Chapter 22
The Ministry of Love, the Blasphemy of Hatred, and the Mistakes of Earthly Affection
The Return to Capernaum
Healing of the Demonised Dumb
Pharisaic Charge Against Christ
The Visit of Christ's Mother and Brethren
(St. Luke 8:1-3; St. Matthew 9:32-35; St. Mark 3:22, &c.; St. Matthew 12:46-50 and parallels)

Book III, Chapter 23
New Teaching 'In Parables'
The Parables to the People by the Lake of Galilee, and Those to the Disciples in Capernaum
(St. Matthew 13:1-52; St. Mark 4:1-34; St. Luke 8:4-18)

Book III, Chapter 24
Christ Stills the Storm on the Lake of Galilee
(St. Matthew 8:18,23-27; St. Mark 4:35-41; St. Luke 8:22-25)

Book III, Chapter 25
At Gerasa
The Healing of the Demonised
(St. Matthew 8:28-34; St. Mark 5:1-20; St. Luke 8:26-39)

Book III, Chapter 26
The Healing of the Woman
Christ's Personal Appearance
The Raising of Jairus' Daughter
(St. Matthew 9:18-26; St. Mark 5:21-43; St. Luke 8:40-56)

Book III, Chapter 27
Second Visit to Nazareth
The Mission of the Twelve
(St. Matthew 13:54-58, 10:1,5-42, 11:1; St. Mark 6:1-13; St. Luke 9:1-6)

Book III, Chapter 28
The Story of the Baptist, From His Last Testimony to Jesus to His Beheading in Prison
(1. St. John 3:25-30.
2. St. Matthew 9:14-17; St. Mark 2:18-22; St. Luke 5:33-39.
3. St. Matthew 11:2-14; St. Luke 7:18-35.
4. St. Matthew 14:1-12; St. Mark 6:14-29; St. Luke 9:7-9)

Book III, Chapter 29
The Miraculous Feeding of the Five Thousand
(St. Matthew 14:13-21; St. Mark 6:30-44; St. Luke 9:10-17; St. John 6:1-14)

Book III, Chapter 30
The Night of Miracles on the Lake of Gennesaret
(St. Matthew 14:22-36; St. Mark 6:45-56; St. John 6:15-21)

Book III, Chapter 31
The Cavils of the Pharisees Concerning Purification, and the Teaching of the Lord Concerning Purity
The Traditions Concerning 'Hand-Washing' and 'Vows'
(St. Matthew 15:1-20; St. Mark 7:1-23)

Book III, Chapter 32
The Great Crisis in Popular Feeling
The Last Discourses in the Synagogue of Capernaum
Christ the Bread of Life
'Will Ye Also Go Away?'*
(St. John 6:22-71)

* It is specially requested, that this chapter be read along with the text of Scripture.

Book III, Chapter 33
Jesus and the Syro-Phoenician Woman
(St. Matthew 15:21-28; St. Mark 7:24-30)

Book III, Chapter 34
A Group of Miracles Among a Semi-Heathen Population
(St. Matthew 16:29-31; St. Mark 7:31-37; St. Luke 8:22-26; St. Matthew 11:27-31)

Book III, Chapter 35
The Two Sabbath-Controversies
The Plucking of the Ears of Corn by the Disciples, and the Healing of the Man with the Withered Hand
(St. Matthew 12:1-21; St. Mark 2:23-3:6; St. Luke 6:1-11)

Book III, Chapter 36
The Feeding of the Four Thousand
To Dalmanutha
'The Sign From Heaven'
Journey to Caesarea Philippi
What is the Leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees?
(St. Matthew 15:32-16:12; St. Mark 8:1-21)

Book III, Chapter 37
The Great Confession
The Great Commission
The Great Instruction
The Great Temptation
The Great Decision
(St. Matthew 16:13-28; St. Mark 8:27-9:1; St. Luke 9:18-27)

Book IV

Book IV, Chapter 1
The Transfiguration
(St. Matthew 17:1-8; St. Mark 9:2-8; St. Luke 9:28-36)

Book IV, Chapter 2
On the Morrow of the Transfiguration
(St. Matthew 17:9-21; St. Mark 9:9-29; St. Luke 9:37-43)

Book IV, Chapter 3
The Last Events in Galilee
The Tribute-Money, the Dispute By the Way, the Forbidding of Him Who Could Not Follow with the Disciples, and the Consequent Teaching of Christ
(St. Matthew 17:22-18:22; St. Mark 9:30-50; St. Luke 9:43-50)

Book IV, Chapter 4
The Journey to Jerusalem
Chronological Arrangement of the Last Part of the Gospel-Narratives
First Incidents By the Way
(St. John 7:1-16; St. Luke 9:1-56, 57-62; St. Matthew 8:19-22)

Book IV, Chapter 5
Further Incidents of the Journey to Jerusalem
The Mission and Return of the Seventy
The Home at Bethany
Martha and Mary
(St. Luke 10:1-16; St. Matthew 9:36-38, 11:20-24; St. Luke 10:17-24; St. Matthew 11:25-30, 13:16; St. Luke 10:25,38-42)

Book IV, Chapter 6
At the Feast of Tabernacles
First Discourse in the Temple
(St. John 7:11-36)

Book IV, Chapter 7
'In the Last, the Great Day of the Feast'
(St. John 7:37-8:11)

Book IV, Chapter 8
Teaching in the Temple on the Octave of the Feast of Tabernacles
(St. John 8:12-59)

Book IV, Chapter 9
The Healing of the Man Born Blind
(St. John 9)

Book IV, Chapter 10
The 'Good Shepherd' and His 'One Flock'
Last Discourse at the Feast of Tabernacles
(St. John 10:1-21)

Book IV, Chapter 11
The First Peraean Discourses
To the Pharisees Concerning the Two Kingdoms
Their Contest
What Qualifies a Disciple for the Kingdom of God,
and How Israel was Becoming Subject to that of Evil
(St. Matthew 12:22-45; St. Luke 11:14-36)

Book IV, Chapter 12
The Morning-Meal in the Pharisee's House
Meals and Feasts Among the Jews
Christ's Last Peraean Warning to Pharisaism
(St. Luke 11:37-54)

Book IV, Chapter 13
To the Disciples
Two Events and Their Moral
(St. Luke 12:1-13:17)

Book IV, Chapter 14
At the Feast of the Dedication of the Temple
(St. Luke 13:22; St. John 10:22-42)

Book IV, Chapter 15
The Second Series of Parables
The Two Parables of Him Who is Neighbour to Us: The First, Concerning the Love
Which is Elicited by our Asking in our Need
(St. Luke 10:25-37, 11:5-13)

Book IV, Chapter 16
The Three Parables of Warning: To the Individual, To the Nation, and To the Theocracy
The Foolish Rich Man
The Barren Fig-tree
The Great Supper
(St. Luke 12:13-21, 13:6-9, 14:16-24)

Book IV, Chapter 17
The Three Parables of the Gospel: Of the Recovery of the Lost
Of the Lost Sheep, The Lost Drachm, The Lost Son
(St. Luke 15)

Book IV, Chapter 18
The Unjust Steward
Dives and Lazarus
Jewish Agricultural Notes
Prices of Produce
Writing and Legal Documents
Purple and Fine Linen
Jewish Notions of Hades
(St. Luke 16)

Book IV, Chapter 19
The Three Last Parables of the Peraean Series: The Unrighteous Judge
The Self-Righteous Pharisee and the Publican
The Unmerciful Servant
(St. Luke 18:1-14; St. Matthew 18:23-35)

Book IV, Chapter 20
Christ's Discourses in Peraea
Close of the Peraean Ministry
(St. Luke 13:23-30,31-35, 14:1-11,25-35, 17:1-10)

Book IV, Chapter 21
The Death and the Raising of Lazarus
The Question of Miracles and of this Miracle of Miracles
Views of Negative Criticism on this History
Jewish Burying-Rites and Sepulchres
(St. John 11:1-54)

Book IV, Chapter 22
On the Journey to Jerusalem
Departure from Ephraim by way of Samaria and Galilee
Healing of Ten Lepers
Prophetic Discourse of the Coming Kingdom
On Divorce: Jewish Views of It
The Blessing to Little Children
(St. Matthew 19:1,2; St. Mark 10:1; St. Luke 17:11; St. Luke 17:12-19; St. Matthew 19:3-12; St. Mark 10:2-12; St. Matthew 19:13-15; St. Mark 10:13-16; St. Luke 18:15-17)

Book IV, Chapter 23
The Last Incidents in Perea
The Young Ruler Who Went Away Sorrowful
To Leave All For Christ
Prophecy of His Passion
The Request of Salome, and of James and John
(St. Matthew 19:16-22; St. Mark 10:17-22; St. Luke 18:18-23; St. Matthew 19:23-30; St. Mark 10:23-31; St. Luke 18:24-30; St. Matthew 20:17-19; St. Mark 10:32-34; St. Luke 18:31-34; St. Matthew 20:20-28; St. Mark 10:35-45)

Book IV, Chapter 24
In Jericho and at Bethany
A Guest with Zaccaeus
The Healing of Blind Bartimaeus
The Plot at Jerusalem
At Bethany, and in the House of Simon the Leper
(St. Luke 19:1-10; St. Matthew 20:29-34; St. Mark 10:46-52; St. Luke 18:35-43; St. John 11:55-12:1; St. Matthew 26:6-13; St. Mark 14:3-9; St. John 12:2-11)

Book V

Book V, Chapter 1
The First Day in Passion-Week
The Royal Entry Into Jerusalem
(St. Matthew 21:1-11; St. Mark 11:1-11; St. Luke 19:29-44; St. John 12:12-19)

Book V, Chapter 2
The Second Day in Passion-Week
The Barren Fig-Tree
The Cleansing of the Temple
The Hosanna of the Children
(St. Matthew 12:12-22; St. Mark 11:15-26; St. Luke 19:45-48)

Book V, Chapter 3
The Third Day in Passion-Week
The Events of That Day
The Question of Christ's Authority
The Question of Tribute to Caesar
The Widow's Farthing
The Greeks Who Sought to See Jesus
Summary and Retrospect of the Public Ministry of Christ
(St. Matthew 21:23-27; St. Mark 11:27-33; St. Luke 20:1-8; St. Matthew 22:15-22; St. Mark 12:13-17; St. Luke 20:20-26; St. Matthew 22:41-46; St. Luke 21:1-4; St. John 12:20-50)

Book V, Chapter 4
The Third Day in Passion-Week
The Last Controversies and Discourses
The Sadducees and the Resurrection
The Scribe and the Great Commandment
Question to the Pharisees About David's Son and Lord
Final Warning to the People: The Eight 'Woes'
(St. Matthew 22:23-33; St. Mark 12:18-27; St. Luke 20:27-39; St. Matthew 12:34-40; St. Mark 12:28-34; St. Matthew 22:41-46; St. Mark 12:35-40; St. Luke 20:40-47; St. Matthew 23)

Book V, Chapter 5
The Third Day in Passion-Week
The Last Series of Parables: To the Pharisees and to the People
On the Way to Jerusalem: The Parable of the Labourers in the Vineyard
In the Temple: The Parable of the 'No' and 'Yes' of the Two Sons
The Parable of the Marriage of the King's Son and the Wedding Garment
(St. Matthew 19:30, 20:16; St. Matthew 21:28-32; St. Matthew 12:33-46; St. Mark 12:1-12; St. Luke 20:9-19; St. Matthew 22:1-14)

Book V, Chapter 6
The Evening of the Third Day in Passion-Week
On the Mount of Olives: Discourses to the Disciples Concerning the Last Things
(St. Matthew 24; St. Mark 13; St. Luke 21:5-38, 12:35-48)

Book V, Chapter 7
Evening of the Third Day in Passion-Week
On the Mount of Olives
Last Parables: To the Disciples Concerning the Last Things
The Parable of The Ten Virgins
The Parable of the Talents
Supplementary Parable of the Minas and the King's Reckoning with His Servants and His Rebellious Citizens
(St. Matthew 25:1-13; St. Matthew 14-30; St. Luke 19:11-28)

Book V, Chapter 8
The Fourth Day in Passion-Week
Jesus in His Last Sabbatic Rest Before His Agony, and the Sanhedrists in Their Unrest
The Betrayal
Judas: His Character, Apostasy, and End
(St. Matthew 26:1-5,14-16; St. Mark 14:1,2,10,11; St. Luke 22:1-6)

Book V, Chapter 9
The Fifth Day in Passion-Week
'Make Ready the Passover!"
(St. Matthew 26:17-19; St. Mark 14:12-16; St. Luke 22:7-13; St. John 13:1)

Book V, Chapter 10
The Paschal Supper
The Institution of the Lord's Supper
(St. Matthew 26:17-19; St. Mark 14:12-16; St. Luke 22:7-13; St. John 13:1; St. Matthew 26:20; St. Mark 14:17; St. Luke 22:14-16; St. Luke 22:24-30; St. Luke 22:17,18; St. John 13:2-20; St. Matthew 26:21-24; St. Mark 14:18-21; St. Luke 22:21-23; St. John 13:21-26; St. Matthew 26:25; St. John 13:26-38; St. Matthew 26:26-29; St. Mark 14:22-25; St. Luke 22:19,20)

Book V, Chapter 11
The Last Discourses of Christ
The Prayer of Consecration *
(St. John 14-17)

*As this chapter is really in the nature of a commentation on St. John xiv., xv., xvi., xvii., the reader is requested to peruse it with the Bible-text beside him. Without this it could scarcely be intelligently followed.

Book V, Chapter 12
(St. Matthew 26:30-56; St. Mark 14:26-52; St. Luke 22:31-53; St. John 18:1-11)

Book V, Chapter 13
Thursday Night
Before Annas and Caiaphas
Peter and Jesus
(St. John 18:12-14; St. Matthew 26:57,58; St. Mark 14:53,54; St. Luke 22:54,55; St. John 18:24,15-18; St. John 18:19-23; St. Matthew 26:69,70; St. Mark 14:66-68; St. Luke 22:56,57; St. John 18:17,18; St. Matthew 26:71,72; St. Mark 14:69,70; St. Luke 22:58; St. John 18:25; St. Matthew 26:59-68; St. Mark 14:55-65; St. Luke 22:67-71,63-65; St. Matthew 26:73-75; St. Mark 14:70-72; St. Luke 22:59-62; St. John 18:26,27)

Book V, Chapter 14
The Morning of Good Friday
(St. Matthew 27:1,2,11-14; St. Mark 15:1-5; St. Luke 23:1-5; St. John 18:28-38; St. Luke 23:6-12; St. Matthew 27:3-10; St. Matthew 27:15-18; St. Mark 15:6-10; St. Luke 23:13-17; St. John 18:39,40; St. Matthew 27:19; St. Matthew 27:20-31; St. Mark 15:11-20; St. Luke 23:18-25; St. John 19:1-16)

Book V, Chapter 15
'Crucified, Dead, and Buried'
(St. Matthew 27:31-43: St. Mark 15:20-32(a); St. Luke 23:26-38; St. John 19:16-24; St. Matthew 28:44; St. Mark 15:32(b); St. Luke 23:39-43; St. John 19:25-27; St. Matthew 27:45-56; St. Mark 15:33-41; St. Luke 23:44-49; St. John 19:28-30; St. John 19:31-37; St. Matthew 27:57-61; St. Mark 15:42-47; St. Luke 23:50-56; St. John 19:38-42; St. Matthew 27:62-66)

Book V, Chapter 16
On the Resurrection of Christ from the Dead

Book V, Chapter 17
'On the Third Day He Rose Again from the Dead: He Ascended into Heaven'
(St. Matthew 28:1-10; St. Mark 16:1-11; St. Luke 24:1-12; St. John 20:1-18; St. Matthew 28:11-15; St. Mark 16:12,13; St. Luke 24:13-35; 1 Cor. 15:5; St. Mark 16:14; St. Luke 24:36-43; St. John 20:19-25; St. John 20:26-29; St. Matthew 28:16; St. John 21:1-24; St. Matthew 28:17-20; St. Mark 16:15-28; 1 Cor. 15:6; St. Luke 24:44-53; St. Mark 16:19,20; Acts 1:3-12)


1. Pseudepigraphic Writings

2. Philo of Alexandria and Rabbinic Theology

3. Rabbinic Views as to the Lawfulness of Images,
Pictorial Representations on Coins, etc.

4. An Abstract of Jewish History from the
Reign of Alexander the Great to the Ascension of Herod

5. Rabbinic Theology and Literature

6. Pereq. 1 - Months - Governors, etc.

7. On the Date of the Nativity of Our Lord

8. Rabbinic Traditions about Elijah the Forerunner of Messiah

9. List of Old Testament Passages Messianically Applied
in Ancient Rabbinic Writings

10. On the Supposed Temple-Synagogue

11. On the Prophecy, Isaiah 40:3

12. The Baptism of Proselytes

13. Jewish Angelology and Demonology. The Fall of the Angels

14. The Law in Messianic Times

15. Location of Sychar, and the Date of Our Lord's Visit to Samaria

16. On the Jewish Views about 'Demons' and 'The Demonised,'
Together with some Notes on the Intercourse Between
Jews and Jewish Christians in the First Centuries

17. The Ordinances and Law of the Sabbath as
Laid Down in the Mishnah and the Jerusalem Talmud

18. Haggadah About Simeon Kepha (Legend of Simon Peter)

19. On Eternal Punishment, According to the Rabbis and the New Testament

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The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah
by Alfred Edersheim
Philologos Edition: Apr1301

"... freely ye have received, freely give." (Mat 10:8)


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